Fountain of Shadows : Schizo Literature in Convergence Culture
|There is an entire technology of power . Even the syntactic, relational, and other meanings proceed from there. The primacy of the micropolitical pragmatics over the phonological, syntactic, and semantic components of language. The primacy of the formations of power over the unconscious*
|It is impossible to break the chain of power-heirarchy-impotization-castration without assembling a concrete machine of another type – diagrammatic conjunction of the material, semiotic and social flows according to a nonmeaningful, non-significant, noninterpretative, nonsubjectifying relationship.[i]
What would a poetics of nonsubjectifying relationship feel like, in the context of a culture which is converging continually on the singularity of language in code? How does it feel to read a text which is emerging only as a result of its assimilation into a converged culture? Where can radical language operate from, when everything is in the world is exactly the same?
In this unfragmentary amalgam I look at the role of poetics in turning language into a tactical differential technology, and the continuing necessity of the figure of the schizo in cultural critique – drawing on a tradition which has utilized depathologised schizophrenia since 1970s and bringing it into contact with what has been described by media theorists such Henry Jenkins as convergence culture: the increasingly complex relationships between three concepts—“media convergence, participatory culture, and collective intelligence.” [ii] Making use of unconventional type and formatting decisions to emblematize the simultaneity of ‘writerly’ and ‘readerly’[iii] impulses in a performative language practice, I look at the ways a Schizo Culture identified by thinkers around the 1970s, can be read alongside our Convergence Culture as media converge in digital space, and illustrate some ways contemporary writers are melding and revisiting schizoid language practices for a convergent era.
“schizo-culture here is being used rather in a special sense. Not referring to clinical schizophrenia, but to the fact that the culture is divided up into all sorts of classes and groups, etcetera, and that some of the old lines are breaking down”[iv]
It was in the post-Vietnam post-1968 world that William S. Burroughs, R.D Laing, Giles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, among others pointed out the value of a de-pathologised understanding of schizophrenia as a model for breaking down established disciplinary and hierarchical lines. The Schizo Culture conference was convened by Semiotext(e) on 13-16th November 1975 to “narrow the gap between radicalism, philosophy, and art on both sides of the Atlantic”[v]. The organisers were particularly seeking to ‘overcome the contradictions’ and note the strong resonances between the radically non-hierarchical operations of New York’s conceptual artists such as John Cage and Robert Wilson, and the immersive theoretical approach of continental philosophy from France, in the form of Deleuze, Guattari, Michel Foucault, and Jean-François Lyotard – and the different languages chosen to reflect on them.
At the heart of this link between arts and philosophy through the institutional means of punishment and control, was the idea of chance. Artists such as John Cage used chance operations to break down the control function of language, and open it up to poetry, Foucault highlighted the chance mechanisms of power which had pathologised schizophrenia, and anti-psychiatrist R.D. Laing observed in the schizophrenic’s hallucinatory utterances a pragmatic articulation of our struggle with our subordination to chance and fate.
|what was interesting to me was making English less understandable, because when it is understandable, well, people control one-another, and poetry disappears…[vi]
|We do not then see phantasy in its true function but experienced merely as an inclusive, sabotaging infantile nuisance. […] Phantasy is a particular way of relating to the world. It is part of, sometimes the essential part of, the meaning or sense (le sens: Merleau-Ponty) implicit in action.[vii]
The use of a notion of ‘schizo’ in the present text then – as in Semiotext(e)’s conference – is not to idealise what is clearly a troubling and in itself often punishing condition, but to acknowledge ways random operation and incoherence propose different ways of thinking – eliding realism and hallucination, the uncomprehensible and experiential, with ‘phantasy’ and ‘poetry’, as ways of uncoupling mechanisms of control. When nothing is certain, as Deleuze and Guattari affirmed in their subsequent Schizophrenia and Capitalism books, there is no mainstream or centre which can be said to be the focus of power – and this is a useful model for culture to operate in.
Structuralism > Deconstruction > Convergence >
The deconstruction and post-structuralism of modern continental philosophy took thought back to the text – it was the application of the schizoid tendency of disorganization on structuralist thought; the same obsession with the text with which Thomas Bernhard subordinated reality to the fate of language in Correction; language which shared with identity the truth that it fell apart under its own implications.
|Correction, in the sense of the novel, involves the breakdown of identity between a concept and its object, and so it shares with dialectic an engagement provoking disunity or otherness.[viii]||a man who […] must force everything he is, in the final analysis, to coalesce in one extreme point, force it all to the utmost limits of his intellectual capacity and his nervous tension until, at the highest degree of such expansion and contraction and the total concentration he has repeatedly achieved, he must actually be torn apart.[ix]
Impossibility of the Outside
Perhaps unsurprisingly, the closest the commentary at the Schizo Culture Conference itself came to predicting the importance of convergence in relation to power was delivered by ‘a man who has the true gift of incoherence’[x]. In this talk, Jean-Francois Lyotard anticipated the motion of ‘convergence’, describing how the working class movement was ‘sucked into’ and instrumentalised by the dominant political system:
|[The working class:] a movement which theorized itself as being localized outside capitalist society was precisely being sucked into that system||one should imagine a strategy without exteriority, which as far as language is concerned would not be outside of the discourse of truth, the discourse of power, but which instead of excluding itself, would use the rule of that discourse against itself…[xi]|
The potential for a language which can happen within what Lyotard termed the ‘discourse of truth’, (from where control and power are exerted) was dependent on finding a form of language of realism which goes beyond or differentiates from ‘versimilitude’ – the similarity to the real, the production of a form of the recognizably real in cultural form – from a language moment which produces its own reality. This form of a language of non-versimilitudinous, or non-representative, realism, which engages in and forms part of the becoming of reality, is now second nature to us in terms of the reality produced by code, on which culture converges.
Instead of understanding the role of fragmentation and deconstructed language to critique and inform discourses of truth from outside, we can, using Lyotard’s non-versimilitudinous model of language conceive of a continuous internal motion of becoming in which language affirms its own truth – containing the meta-statement of its own ‘spontaneity, libido, drive, instinct… savagery, madness…’ – as an hallucinatory reality to which culture is necessarily subject.
During the digital revolution, up-to the late nineties, it was a commonplace notion that old totemic media of print, television, radio would be demolished and replaced by a new paradigm – from outside. Burroughs saw the existing lines of discipline, consciousness and formal adherence breaking down to be replaced by others in 1970s – and now, with a ‘convergence culture’ of shared platforms and systematic models, that breaking down has revealed a new realism of language in which technologies, politics and semiotics, along with disciplinary and control structures continually twist or melt back together into the background noise of culture-as-code. The overflowing of the divergent faults within language and identity which delivered the post-modern demise of structuralism and binary opposition, are in a sense logically followed by a convergence culture which forms a codified plane for mapping these divergences – and in turn these must be followed by a tactical and mobile divergence from within which is true to the hallucinatory realism produced by language itself.
In a 2012 interview, Kanye West affirms in all seriousness that ‘everything in the world is exactly the same’[xii]. West is referring to his own cultural productions: fashion, music, sculpture (even persona), but simultaneously we can quite seriously understand digital culture as consisting of an insistent ‘everything’. An ‘everything’ of codifiable and irrreducable textiality, or information, in which corporate informational giants such as Google and Facebook financialize behaviours, cultures, communications just as they do technologies. The background code of the digital’s many dialects of data as analytical and control mechanisms, the new literacy as alphanumeric and iconographic hybrid engendered by social media channels, the quantification of locales in terms of instant population estimates – these are signs of a culture converged again as a singular system of signs, inside and pressing at the edge of sprawling and codified text.
In business the term Convergence implies the coming together of four major industries: Information Technologies, Telecommunication, Consumer Electronics and Entertainment. In convergence culture, industry also converges in the practice of everyday life with the human and geopolitical platforms: semiotics, language, sociology, identity etc. The processes by which convergence takes place are everywhere, from the circumstance of a cereal packet character who becomes a the lead character of a film and gaming francize, whose voice is then supplanted into your sat-nav; to the program of identities a teenager proliferates across her Instagram and her Facebook, in her meetings with school teachers, the edited digital photos she shows her Nan over Sunday dinner, and the slang she uses during a first date; from the layering of territory the stack of virtual worlds nationality, identity, law, information-firewall, to the convergence of consumption and production at work on tumblr and other mixed-ownership media-sharing websites.
Digital convergence is already relational, and diagrammatic in the sense of being a result of the breaking down of old lines of distinction, but it also raises the potential of a totality of control in that it focuses the source of agency upwards into abstract financial-power strata – and that even the matter of grass-roots or resistant movements can be and are subsumed into a larger and more insidious system of financialization. So a converging culture driven both ‘from the top’ via massive media conglomerates formed from digital convergence industries, and ‘from the grassroots’ via user created, appropriated, distributed and interpreted content and data, forms a continual mulling of power, similar in diagrammatic appearance to a fountain, or a convection current in which power rises through the centre and tumbles from its outer edges.
“Some fear that media is out of control, others that it is too controled. Some see a world without gatekeepers, others a world where gatekeepers have unprecedented power.”[xiii]
The mulling of control between the upper-echelons of finance and the lower strata of grassroots activity is a convection in which the central rule is that of the irrepressible abstraction of everything into codified information – data which are drawn up by corporate law, shaken free and embodied and reconnected to the social body by information activists, drawn into the grass-roots by collective re-appropriatory cultures, re-re-appropriated and pushed up for mainstream political and commercial means, corporate gains. In this sense, codification is the radiator of culture, pressing it upwards.
Convergence as Motion
This movement is integrally linguistic in nature, and only possible within language. Just as the work of digital artists engaging deeply with convergence is textual also – exerting through code the potentials of experimental language practice in converged media. The Ubu-web entry for Takeshi Murata’s film Silver describes how his work “twists and stretches a sequence from an old movie into a psychedelic odyssey–a fitting afterlife…” Indicating how the codified rendering of analogue film opens the door to a movement and transformation which is not cutting/splicing, but instead operates by altering and deconstructing the syntactical structure of the movie file – by removing ‘key frames’ as grammatical devices; a continual and uninterrupted ambient poetics of movement:
|Frustrating the gaze, her beautiful face never stays still long enough to really be looked at. Instead, it keeps distorting to monstrous proportions or turning into liquid reflections …
|Murata’s technique involves digitally compressing the footage so [it] … records only the net difference in movement from one frame to the next. …Atmosphere and ambiguity prevail here.”[xiv]|
Atmosphere and ambiguity prevail in our continually present treatment of alphanumeric and iconographic language in social media, where entertainment and communication converge in the now. Comment feeds are home to multiple readings of a simple image – we become analytical anthropologists of the social present. The simultaneous operations of control and analysis take place upon a reality which is becoming, and this is the feverish activity of the collective poem we hear spoken in the public space when people talk with each others’ words as though in agreement but of course not at all, clinging to our individuality it dissolves.
Art of Convergence Culture
Artists have explored the convergent character of culture as an impulse combining controlling and analytical forms of text. In Unsound Method (2010), Tim Etchells reveals that Joseph Conrad’s novel The Heart of Darkness is a musical score, where the frequency of the words applicable to lightness and darkness form a syncopated rhythmic relation to one another – setting up a series of non-binary oppositions and bifurcations which occlude, reflect and dissolve the original rhythms and interplays of the text.
Sophia La Fraga reworks Beckett’s Waiting for Godot as emoji-text in W8ING (2014), converging the conundrum of Beckett’s language into the codified language of txt-speak – for example equating the ambiguous ‘Godot’ with an ‘unknown ID’ icon – and converging the theatrical voice with the immediate and performative nature of digital literacy. These convergences embrace the new ambiguities of codifiable texts and uses them as a program for new interfaces with reality – allowing the textual to play out in continual movement: as with the voice of the actor, so the utterance in txt .
Language Control Finance
As Benjamin Bratton notes, the word ‘program’ is used to describe the protocols of working together that systems have, and that mapping of relations are ‘stacked’ into a variety of different territorial possibilities. A program is essentially the manifestation of the linguistic nature of control observed by Burroughs* – but, Bratton affirms, the linguistic nature of control has been diffused and converged among programs linking an immense plurality of layers through which our identity is evaporated – the number of functions layered upon the individual ‘user’ as node in the system.
|*…words are still the principal instruments of control. Suggestions are words. Persuasions are words. Orders are words. No control machine so far devised can operate without words, and any control machine which attempts to do so relying entirely on external force or entirely on physical control of the mind will soon encounter the limits of control.[xv]||As robotics and Cloud hardware of all scales blend into a common category of machine, it will be unclear in general human-robotic interaction whether one is encountering a fully autonomous, partially autonomous, or completely human-piloted synthetic intelligence…. Ask yourself: Is that User “Anonymous” because he is dissolved into a vital machinic plurality, or because public identification threatens individual self-mastery, sense of autonomy, social unaccountability, and so forth? … Given the schizophrenic economy of the User—first over-individuated and then multiplied and de-differentiated—this really isn’t an unexpected or neurotic reaction at all. It is, however, fragile and inadequate.[xvi]|
Our modern ‘touch’ interfaces and visual surveillance mediums have not only failed to break down the link between language and control, but have made concrete, through ‘programing’ the complete convergence of structures of language with those of semiosis, emotion, identity.
Burroughs was right to speak of the breaking down of established hierarchical lines the Schizo Culture as the dominant means of evolution for his time, but now we are within the broken down remains and these remains have been sucked back into a system of programatic power – the upwards motion of what Franco ‘Bifo’ Berardi calls semiocaptial[xvii], where ‘signs produce signs without passing through the flesh’ and ‘Monetary value produces monetary value without first being realised through the production of goods’ – towards and into finance, where the feeling of text has become ethereal, abstracted from the ambiguities of its production and literally un-real.
The untimely new gesture of the schizo is to re-introduce the madness, ambiguity and fatefulness of language into the contemporary cognitive machine’s interleaving of behavior, technology, culture and semiosis – not by breaking down, but by cascading within. An hallucinatory and realist language for our time is one which is dissolving in itself and its background ‘codes’ even as it is combining everything.
The continental, and post-structural, philosophers’ deep immersion in theoretical language, combining individual, social and political agency – and an insistence on the hallucinatory realism of the text – is an ideological state where always-already codified languages are rescued from the void of meaningfulness, into a technological field for a diagrammatic play. Here bifurcation and divergence lead to an ambiguity in motion similar to Murata’s ‘psychedelic odyssey’ of datamoshed film, removing the stabilising syntax or vocabulary. The immersive and experimental mode of writers like Felix Guattari, and contemporary writers like Tao Lin and Keston Sutherland in their own way also (as I will attempt to show later), take us back into language as a site of distribution – echoing the ways in which the poetry of the Language School of poetics affirmed the ‘realist’ multiplicity and conflict of text:
|Whose realism? Whose reality? …. the realities that writing deals with comprise a social body that can best be conceived as being made up of conflicting – often violently clashing – codes… Unresolved conflict at the heart of the real underscores the value of embodying multiple perspectives and discourses within a work – instead of singling out and harnessing it to the burden of ‘standing for’ an uncontested reality. [xviii]
|Nothing here is representative; rather, it is all life and lived experience: the actual, lived emotion of having breasts does not resemble breasts, it does not represent them [xix]
In terms of language and power in academic and art circles, the convergence of continental theory and U.S. art rhetoric is, of course, fully made. Indeed, the current language at large in the arts, “International Art English” (IAE)[xx], is a linguistic stew so heavily influenced by the continental philosophical tradition – that it mimics the problems of translating French post-structuralist word-play into English.
|[The artist] centres in her work a deal with a political and sociocultural reality, with objects, images, texts that move and disturb the status by questioning its meaning and appearances, by overturning the relations between the work and its space, and by instituting the viewer as an essential component of the work’s sense.[xxi]
|Many tendencies that IAE has inherited are not just specific to French but to the highbrow written French that the poststructuralists appropriated, or in some cases parodied (the distinction was mostly lost in translation). This kind of French features sentences that go on and on and make ample use of adjectival verb forms and past and present participles. These have become art writing’s stylistic signatures.’[xxii]|
This twisting together of traditions in language, to produce what Alix Rule and David Levine ‘quite seriously’ define as a ‘new language’ is schizophrenic in its nature and production of newness – unreliable, uncodifiable, threatening, and formed around an integrally specific and problematic existential experience. It is the case that IAE is a Lyotardian anomaly operating among a codifiable culture, being essentially and integrally ‘nonmeaningful, non-significant, noninterpretative, nonsubjectifying’ but also interior in the sense of its centrality to ‘power’ and relation to finance. As with the schizophrenia identified by Deleuze and Guattari, the power of differentiation here is deployed as a form of elite drawing of lines, de- and then re-territorialising at will – a language of and for verisimilitude in which the ‘key-frames’ of truth are dissolved.
Diverging in Convergence
It is into the context of the all-as-text and text-as-technology implied by convergence, that a contemporary schizo poetics exercises the madness of language as a political and social agent of multiples. A schizo poetics which divulges its place within convergence culture is one in which language is in a constant state of becoming not-itself – and instead a dysfunctional part of the flow of data into capital through technology, semiosis and communication.
The schizo poetic interjects a problem or glitch within mainstream codified language. In its refusal of static identity, its bifurcation into multiples, its dissolution the contemporary schizo poet is at once emblematic of the temporal qualities of the convergent media network, and at odds with the commodification of the persona. As Jenkins described in relation to identity-making in Convergence Culture
“Each of us constructs our own personal mythology from bits and fragments of information extracted from the media flow and transformed into resources through which we make sense of our everyday lives.”[xxiii]
Keston Sutherland’s poetry reflects convergence with a shift in his poetic style, doing away with the ‘zig-zag and somersaults of fragmentation’ in favour of a deeply melded lyric which converges the romantic, the political, the sexual with beligerance and anxiety, knowledge and naivety – as an unbroken, not-versified flow. Ostensibly Odes to TL61P (2013) is mostly a prose work, but Sutherland himself questions the exactitude of the term ‘prose’ to describe something which could at an time be other.
|Cooking the booklets in cream over the flames of a steamy and amorous anaemic in a crematorium, or bitterly masturbating for a magic bearhug from bond markets enduring freedom, or just bugging out on leverage in Merryl Lynch, it’s the same old same old up the you know what; Brief contact is not irritating.[xxiv]
|I wonder whether they might not at the same time… be something other than prose, too? Prose cannot normally be imagined to have porous edges liable to be penetrated or broken through by lines that suddenly qualify as “verse”; I don’t know how to conceive it yet, but the function of that smashable edge must be somehow to introduce a generic contingency or blur, so that we are never fully “in prose”.[xxv]
Sutherland’s is not simple convergent writing by virtue of its ambiguity between prose/verse – the ‘smashable edges’ in his work and the violently reacontextualised vocabularies he uses form a schizoid poetics which is active and alive to diagrammatic readings. His work implies his discontents as slippery non-codifiable programs of relation problematising a cross-media system of information, entertainment and control with sexuality, anxiety, fury and jouissance of language taking the place of infernal logics.
The radical ambiguity of texts here, and as is necessary at the between-state of the program, and in the freefall of language devolved from its syntactical and hierarchical structure, is one which acknowledges and enacts the depressive, dissolutionary abjection. Kristeva highlights the slang and base-ness in De Sade and Celine as integrally abject forms of identity creation language, for example – observing the movement towards an affirmation of identity which is neither the author’s own, nor rejected. In the context of the programmatic relation, the text is itself a between-state of identity and context, the social-media realm is one in which identities which are at once our own and not, and prose stylists revisit the abject as a kind of realism for semiocapital conditions.
In Taipei (2013) the novelist Tao Lin’s use of abjection and dissolution are integral to the continuity of his Paul central character’s becoming, as at once diverging from and converging in culture. Tao Lin depicts an outsider lifestyle – on drugs, depressed, and when in relatinoships, they are dysfunctional on the point of collapse at the peak of their intimacy – in a language, and depicting a detournment or twisting of commercial branding and individual identity which points to the unsustainable realism and exhaustion of mainstream culture. In the character’s conversations, as with the life of the text, the hallucinatory and the depressive, the manic and the freakish emerge from and drop back into their cultural context, and are interchangeable with the flows of the real.
|the conceit that they existed because a young man in Taipei, while eating a bag of Chicken McNuggets, allowed himself (despite knowing this would definitely increase his unhappiness) to realistically imagine his next binge, when he would have two bags. Paul and Erin were constructed by the young man’s unconscious, for verisimilitude, as passersby in the peripheral vision of his imaginary next trip to McDonalds.[xxvi]||Paul and Erin discussed their movie in a dialogue that sometimes overlapped with their inner monologues, which they sometimes introduced to the dialogue, or abandoned to focus on the dialogue, or both externalized, like pets into a shared space, to observe.
The life of this language is continually coming into being as distinct, unique, and exerting a one-ness drug and madness experience which is as strikingly convergent as, for example, Burrough’s Naked Lunch was strikingly fragmentary. The notion of fading, converging with the background or unconscious of reality, but also the continually divergent – the power with which the real hallucinatory consciousness impacts upon the world, in a continual slow time-lapse of text.
“[Paul] felt continuously aroused ‘somewhere,’ including sometimes, it seemed, outside his body, a few feet in front of him, or far in the distance, in a certain store or area of sky, or in an overlap, shifting in and out of his chest or head or the front of his face.”
The fragment is dead, certainly, as a means of disruption – for who can fragment liquid, break vapour? This death of the negative of convergence leaves us intimately understanding without knowing the returning convergence at work in the differentiation of the schizoid treatment of language, where chance and fate are in becoming as an innate inter-relation of ambiguous and transparent forms. These are not tactics of ‘bringing together’, or of ‘breaking apart’, but of temporality in which the bringing together is an idiocyncratic and uncodifyable, illogical concentration – a fountain of shadows. A poetics of energy, transference, and meaning falls apart only as it becomes is the usefulness of the schizoid obsessions with language which enable it to become – meaning to no end other than to disorganize and decode, or uncode the body or current in its upward motion – also a fountain of shadows.
[i] Felix Guattari, “Notes on Power and Meaning” Schizo Culture, 2007, p. 182
[ii] Jenkins, Henry Convergence Culture, NYU Press 2006, p. 22
[iii] Barthes, Roland S/Z: An Essay, trans Richard Millar, Hill and Wang 1974
[iv] William S. Burroughs “Q&A” Schizo Culture: The Event, Semiotext(e) 2007, p. 161
[v] Lotringer, Sylvere “Introduction” Schizo Culture: The Event, Semiotext(e) 2007, p. 44
[vi] Cage, John interview, August 1974 online, archive.org, accessed 29 July 2014
[vii] R.D. Laing The Politics of Experience, Routledge 1967, p. 4
[viii] Salyer, Jeffrey W. “Mastery and Mock Dialectic in Thomas Bernhard’s Correction” Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 36.2, Sept. 2010, pp. 103-126
[ix] Bernhard, Thomas Correction, trans. Sophie Wilkins. Random House, 2013 p. 22
[x] Arthur Danto, from roundtable discussion “Beyond Sense and Nonsense” in Theatre, Fall 1997 28(1) p. 22
[xi] Jean-Francois Lyotard “On the Strength of the Weak” (Group Translation), Schizo-Culture: The Event, 2007 p. 81
[xii] Kanye West, Interview with Seth Meyers NBC online [http://youtu.be/HhSv9U5pc-U?list=PLJaq64dKJZoqUES1U2FZDJ30BWI1T1xMg] accessed 29th July 2014
[xiii] Jenkins, Henry, Convergence Culture, p. 28
[xiv] Feldman, Melissa Art In America, 2006
[xv] Burroughs, William S. “The Limits of Control” The Adding Machine, John Calder 1985 p. 166
[xvi] Bratton “The Black Stack”, e-flux [http://www.e-flux.com/journal/the-black-stack/] accessed 29 July 2014
[xvii] Berardi, F. The Uprising: On Poetry and Finance, Semiotext(e) 2012 p. 24
[xviii] Bruce Andrews and Charles Bernstein, “Reinventing Community”, Paradise and Method, 1996, p. 111
[xix] Deleuze, Gilles and Felix Guattari Anti-Oedopus, Routledge 1984 p. 21
[xx] Alix Rule & David Levine “International Art English” Triple Canopy 2010, online article http://canopycanopycanopy.com/issues/16/contents/international_art_english accessed 29 July 2014
[xxi] unattributed example of IAE, online http://internationalartenglish.blogspot.co.uk/ accessed 29 July 2014
[xxii] Jenkins, Henry, Convergence Culture, NYU Press 2006, p. 24
[xxiii] Jenkins, Henry Convergence Culture NYU Press 2006 p. 3
[xxiv] Sutherland, Keston Odes to TL61P, Enitharnon, 2013, p. 16
[xxv] Sutherland, Keston Arduity website online http://www.arduity.com/poets/sutherland/odes2.html accessed 29 July 2014
[xxvi] Lin, Tao Taipei Cannongate 2013 pp. 201 – 204